Adelman, H. S. (1996). Restructuring education support services and integrating community resources: Beyond the full service model. School Psychology Review, 25, 431-445.n Adelman, H. S. & Taylor, L. (1994). Pupil services and education reform. Paper presented at the “Safe Schools, Safe Students: A Collaborative Approach to Achieving Safe, Disciplined and Drug-Free Schools Conducive to Learning” Conference (Washington, DC, October 28, 29, 1994).n American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.n American Psychological Association. (1993). Violence and youth: Psychology’s response. Washington, DC: Author.n Arnette, J. L. & Walsleben, M. C. (1998). Combating fear and restoring safety in schools. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department Of Justice.n Arthur, R., & Erickson, E. (1992). Gangs and schools. Holmes Beach, FL: Learning Publications.n Asher, S. R., & Coie, J. D. (Eds.). Peer rejection in childhood. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.n Astor, R. A. (1996). Unowned places & times: Maps and interviews about violence in unsafe high schools. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association. Toronto, Ontario Canada. ERIC Document #408381.n Axelson, J. A. (in press). Counseling and development in a multicultural society (Third Edition). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. n Batsche, G. M. & Knoff, H. M. (1994). Bullies and their victims: Understanding a pervasive problem in the schools. School Psychology Review, 23, 165-174.n Benson, J. H. (1996). Achieving Equal Educational Outcomes for Black Children. In A. Barona & E.E. Garcia (Eds.), Children at risk: Poverty, minority status, & other issues in education equity (pp.201-216). Washington, DC: National Association of School Psychologists.n Berkowitz, L. & Lepage, A. (1967). Weapons as aggression-eliciting stimuli. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 7, 202-207.n Berman, A. L., & Jobes, D. A. (1991). Adolescent suicide: Assessment & intervention. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.n Berndt, T. J. (1984). Sociometric, socio-cognitive and behavioral measures for the study of friendship and popularity. In T. Field, J. L. Roopnarine, & M. Segal (Eds.), Friendship in normal and handicapped children, (pp. 31-45). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Company.n Blum, R. W., & Rinehart, P. M. (1998). Reducing the risk: Connections that make a difference in the lives of youth. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.n Bodine, R. J., Crawford, D. K., & Schrumpf, F. (1995). Creating the peaceable school: A comprehensive program for teaching conflict resolution. Champaign, IL: Research Press.n Bowditch, C. (1993). Getting rid of troublemakers: High school disciplinary procedures and the production of dropouts. Social Problems, 40, 493-507.n Browne, A. & Finkelhor, D. (1986). Impact of child sexual abuse: A review of the research. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 66-77.n Cantor, R., Kivel, P., & Creighton, A. (1997). Days of respect. Organizing a schoolwide violence prevention program. Alameda, CA: Hunter House.n Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention & Control. (1993). The prevention of youth violence: A framework for community action. Atlanta, GA: Author.n Cicchetti, D. & Richters, J. E. (1993). Developmental considerations in the investigation of conduct disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 331-344. n Coalition for Cohesive Policy in Addressing Barriers to Development and Learning. (1988). Report from the Steering Committee. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.n Cohen, M. A. (1996). The monetary value of saving a high risk youth. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University.n Coie, J. D., Dodge, K. A., & Kupersmidt, J. (1990). Peer group behavior and social status. In S. R. Asher & J. D. Coie (Eds.), Peer rejection in childhood, (pp. 178-201). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.n Coie, J. D. & Jacobs, M. R. (1993). The role of social context in the prevention of conduct disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 263-275.n Colvin, G., Kameenui, E., & Sugai, G. (1993). Reconceptualizing behavior management and school-wide discipline in general education. Education and Treatment of Children, 16, 361-381.n Colvin, G., Sugai, G., & Patching, W. (1992). Pre-correction: An instructional strategy for managing predictable behavior problems. Intervention, 28, 143-150.n Colvin, G., Sugai, G., & Kameenui, E.. (1993). Proactive school-wide discipline: Implementation manual. Eugene, OR: Project PREPARE, Behavioral Research and Teaching, College of Education, University of Oregon. n Comer, J. P., & Woodruff, D.W. (in press). Everyone counts: Developing schools that work. Metropolitics.n Communities in Schools. (1997). Youth violence: Prediction & prevention. Facts you can use — Seeds of help, 1(3), 28-56. Alexandria, VA: Author.n Cook, P. J. (1991). The technology of personal violence. In M. Toney (Ed.) Crime & justice: An annual review of research, 14, (pp. 235-280). Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.n Cooley, S. (1995). Suspension/expulsion of regular and special education students in Kansas: A report to the Kansas State Board of Education. Topeka, KS: Kansas State Board of Education.n Cornell, D. G. (1998). Designing safer schools for Virginia: A guide to keeping students safe from violence. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia, Thomas Jefferson Center for Educational Design.n Cornell, D. G. & Loper, A. B. (1998). Assessment of violence and other high-risk behaviors with a school survey. School Psychology Review, 27, 1-14.n Cotton, K. (1995). Effective schooling practices: A research synthesis. 1995 Update. School Improvement Research Series. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.n Crowe, T. D.. (1990). Designing safer schools. School Safety, Fall, 9-13.n Curry School of Education, Virginia Youth Violence Project, University of Virginia. http://curry.edschool.virginia.edu/curry/centers/youthvio/n Day, D. M., & Golench, C. A. (1997). Promoting safe schools through policy: Results of a survey of Canadian schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 35, 332-347.n Dodge, K. A. (1989). Problems in social relationships. In E. J. Mash & R. A. Barkley (Eds.), Treatment of childhood disorders, (pp. 222-246). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.n Doll, B. (1996). Children without friends: Implications for practice and policy. School Psychology Review, 25, 165-183.n Drug Strategies. (1998). Safe schools, safe students. A guide to violence prevention strategies. Washington, DC: Author.n Dwyer, K. P. (1996). Building safe, effective schools. Updating School Board Policies, 27, 1-6.n Dwyer, K. P., (1998). Disciplining students with disabilities. In National Association of School Psychologists, Behavioral interventions: Creating a safe environment in schools, (pp. 18-21). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists. n Dwyer, K. P. & Bernstein, R. (1998). Mental health in the schools: Islands of hope in a sea of despair. School Psychology Review, 27, 277-286. n Eber, L. & Nelson, C. M. (1997). School-based wraparound planning: Integrating services for students with emotional and behavioral needs. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 67, 385-395.n Eccles, J. S., Midgley, C., Wigfield, A., Buchanan, C. M., Reuman, D., Flanagan, C., & MacIver, D. (1993). The impact of stage-environment fit on young adolescents experiences in schools & families. American Psychologist, 48, 90-101.n Ekstrom, R. B., Goertz, M. E., Pollack, J. M., & Rock, D. A. (1986). Who drops out of high school and why? Findings from a national study. Teachers College Record, 87, 357-73.n Elam, S.M., & Rose, L.C. (1995). The 27th annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup pole of the public’s attitude toward the public schools. Kappan, 77, 41-56.n Elam, S. M., Rose, L. C., & Gallup, A. M. (1996a). The third Phi Delta Kappa poll of teachers’ attitudes toward the public schools. Kappan, 78, 244-250.n Elam, S. M., Rose, L. C., & Gallup, A. M. (1996b). 28th annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup poll of the public’s attitudes toward the public schools. Kappan, 78, 41-59.n Elias, M. J., & Tobias, S. E. (1996). Social problem-solving: Interventions in the schools. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.n Elias, M. J., Zins, J. E., Weissberg, R. P., Frey, K. S., Greenberg, M. T., Haynes, N. M., Kessler, R., Schwab-Stone, M. E., & Shriver, T. P. (1997). Promoting Social and Emotional Learning Guidelines for Educators. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.n Elliot, D. S., Huizinga, D., & Azeton, S. S. (1985). Explaining delinquency & drug use. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.n Elliot, D. S., Huizinga, D., & Moise, B. (1986). Self-reported violent offending: A descriptive analysis of juvenile violent offenders and their offending careers. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 4, 472-514.n Elliott, S. N., Witt, J. C., & Kratochwill, T. R. (1996). Selecting, implementing, & evaluating classroom interventions. In G. Stoner, M.R. Shinn, & H.M. Walker (Eds.), Interventions for achievement & behavior problems, (pp. 99-136). Washington, DC: National Association of School Psychologists.n Epstein, J. L. (1994). Theory to practice: School partnerships lead to school improvement and student success. In C. L. Fagnano, & K. N. Hughes (Eds.), School, family, and community interaction: A view from the firing lines, (pp. 39-54). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.n Epstein, M. H., Kutash, K., & Duchnowski, A. (1998). Outcomes for children & youth with behavioral & emotional disorders and their families. Programs & evaluation best practices. Austin, TX: ProEd.n Epstein, M. H., Quinn, K., & Cumblad, C. (1997). Needs assessment of services for children and youth with emotional or behavioral disorders: The perceptions of parents and service providers. In C. Liberton, K. Kutash, and R. Friedman (Eds)., The 7th Annual Research Conference Proceedings, A System of Care for Children’s Mental Health: Expanding the Research Base, (pp. 85-93). Tampa, FL: University of South Florida, The Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, Research and Training Center for Children’s Mental Health.n Feil, E. G., Severson, H. H., & Walker, H. M. (1998). Screening for emotional and behavioral delays: The early screening project. Journal of Early Intervention, 21, 252-266. n Feil, E. G., Walker, H. M., & Severson, H. H. (1995). The early screening project for young children with behavior problems. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 3, 194-202.n Felner, D., & Adan, A. M. (1988). The school transitional environment project: An ecological intervention & evaluation. In R. H. Price, E. L. Cowen, R. P. Lorian, & J. Ramos-McKay (Eds.), 14 ounces of prevention: A casebook for practitioners, (pp. 111-112). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.n Fine, M. (1986). Why urban adolescents drop into and out of public high school. Teachers College Record, 87, 393-409.n Finn, J. D. (1989). Withdrawing from school. Review of Educational Research, 59, 117-143.n Floyd, N. M. (1985). “Pick on somebody your own size?” Controlling victimization. The Pointer, 29, 9-17. n Forehand, A., Biggar, H. & Kotchick, B. A. (1998). Cumulative risk across family stressors: Short-and long-term effects for adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 119-128.n Fradd, S. H., Weissmantel, M. J., Corria, V. I., & Algozzine, B. (1990). Insuring equity in education: Preparing school personnel for culturally & linguistically divergent at-risk handicapped students. In A. Barona, & E. E. Garcia, Children at risk: Poverty, minority status, & other issues in educational equity, (pp. 237-256). Washington, DC: National Association of School Psychologists.n Friedman, R. M., Kutash, K., & Duchnowski, A. J. (1996). The population of concern: Defining the issues. In B. Stroul (Ed.), Children’s Mental Health: Creating Systems of Care in a Changing Society, (pp. 69-96). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.n Furlong, M. L., Morrison, G. M., Chung, A., Bates, M., & Morrison, R. (1997). School violence: A multicomponent reduction strategy. In G. Bear (Ed.), Children’s needs: Psychological perspectives II. Arlington, VA: National Association of School Psychologists.n Furtwengler, W. J. (1996). Improving secondary school discipline by involving students in the process. NASSP Bulletin, 80, 36-44. n Garber, J., Quiggle, N. L., Panak, W., & Dodge, K.A. (1991). Aggression and depression in children: Comorbidity, specificity, and social cognitive procession. In D. Cicchetti & S.L. Toth (Eds.), Internalizing and externalizing expressions of dysfunction: Rochester symposium on developmental psychopathology (Volume II). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. n Gardner, W., Lidz, C. W., Mulvey, E. P., & Shaw, E. C. (1996). Clinical versus actuarial predictions of violence in patients with mental illnesses. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 602-609. n Garfinkel, B. D., Crosby, E., Herbert, M. R., Matus, A. L., Pfeifer, J. K., & Sheras, P. L. (1988). Responding to Adolescent Suicide. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Task Force on Adolescent Suicide Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.n Garmezy, N. (1993). Children in poverty: Resilience despite risk. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and biological processes, 56, 127-136.n Garrison, R. W. (1989). Alternative schools for disruptive youth. National School Safety Center Resource Paper. Malibu, CA: National School Safety Center, Pepperdine University.n Gaustad, J. (1991). Schools respond to gangs and violence. Oregon School Study Council, 34, 13.n George, M. P., Valore, T., Quinn, M. M., & Varisco, R. (1997). Preparing to go home: A collaborative approach to transition. Preventing School Failure, 41, 168-172.n Goldstein, A., & Conoley, J.C. (1997). School violence intervention: A practical handbook. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.n Gottfredson, D. C. (1997). School-based crime prevention. In L. Sherman, D. Gottfredson, D. MacKenzie, J. Eck, P. Reuter, & S. Bushway (Eds.), Preventing crime: What works, what doesn’t, what’s promising. College Park, MD: Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice.n Gottfredson, D. C. (1987). An evaluation of an organization development approach to reducing school disorder. Evaluation Review, 11, 739-763.n Gottfredson, D.C. (1985). School size and school disorder, report no. 360. Baltimore, MD: Center for Social Organization of Schools.n Gottfredson, D. C., Gottfredson, G. D., & Hybl, L. G. (1993). Managing adolescent behavior: A multiyear, multischool study. American Educational Research Journal, 30, 179-215.n Gottfredson, D. C., Sealock, M. D., & Koper, C. S. (1996). Delinquency. In R. DiClemente, W. Hansen, & L. Ponton (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent health risk behavior. New York, NY: Plenum.n Gorman-Smith, D. & Tolan, P. (1998). The role of exposure to community violence and developmental problems among inner-city youth. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 101-116.n Green, R. G., & Donnerstein, E. I. (1983.). Aggression: Theoretical & empirical reviews. New York, NY: Harcourt-Brace.n Greenbaum, S. (1988). School bullying & victimization. Malibu, CA: National School Safety Center.n Gresham, F. M., Sugai, G., Horner, R. H., Quinn, M. M. & McInerney, M. (1998). Classroom and schoolwide practices that support student’s social competence: A synthesis of research. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.n Grossman, D. C., Neckerman, H. J., Koepsell, T. D., Liu, P., Asher, K. N., Beland, K., Frey, K., & Rivaria, F. P. (1997). Effectiveness of a violence prevention curriculum among children in elementary school: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 277, 1605-1612.n Guerra, N. G., Huesmann, L. R., Tolan, P. H., Van Acker, R., & Eron, L. D. (1995). Stressful events and individual beliefs as correlates of economic disadvantage and aggression among urban children. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 63, 518-528. n Guerra, N. G., Tolan, P. H., & Hammond, W. R. (1994). Prevention & treatment of adolescent violence. In L. D. Eron, T. H. Gentry, & P. Schlegel (Eds.) Reason to hope: A psychosocial perspective on violence & youth, (pp. 383-403). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.n Guerra, N. G, Tolan, P. H., Rowell Huesmann, L. & Van Acker, R. (1995). Stressful events and individual beliefs as correlates of economic disadvantage and aggression among urban children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 518-528.n Haller, E. J. (1992). High school size & student indiscipline: Another aspect of the school consolidation issue? Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 14, 145-156.n Harris, G. T., Rice, M. E., & Quinsey, V. C. (1993). Violent recidivism of mentally disordered offenders: The development of a statistical prediction instrument. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 20, 315-335.n Hawkins, J. D., Doueck, H. J., & Lishner, D. M. (1988). Changing teaching practices in mainstream classrooms to improve bonding and behavior of low achievers. American Educational Research Journal, 25, 31-50.n Hawkins, J. D., & Weiss, J. G. (1985). The social development model: An integrated approach to delinquency prevention. Journal of Primary Prevention, 6, 73-95.n Haynes, N. M., & Comer, J. P. (1990). The effects of a school development program on self concept. The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 63, 275-283.n Haynes, N. M., Comer, J. P., & Hamilton-Lee, M. (1988). The school development program: A model for school improvement. Journal of Negro Education, 57, 11-21.n Heide, K.M. (1997). Juvenile homicide in America: How can we stop the killing? Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 15, 203-220.n Hillbrand, M. (1995). Aggression against self and aggression against others in violent psychiatric patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 668-671.n Hinshaw, S. P. (1992). Externalizing behavior problems and academic underachievement in childhood and adolescence: Causal relationships and underlying mechanisms. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 127-155.n Hollinger, J. (1987). Social skills for behaviorally disordered children as preparation for mainstreaming: Theory, practice, & new directions. Remedial & Special Education, 8, 17-27.n Horne, A. M., & Sayger, T. (1990). Treating conduct & oppositional defiant disorder in children. New York, NY: Pergamon.n Horner, R. H., Diemer, S. M., & Brazeau, K. C. (1992). Educational support for students with severe problem behaviors in Oregon: A descriptive analysis from the 1987-1988 school year. The Journal of the Association of Persons with Severe Handicaps, 17, 154-169.n Hunter, L., & Elias, M., (1998). School violence: Prevalence, Policies, and Prevention. In A. R. Roberts (Ed.), Juvenile justice: Policies, programs, and services (pp. 71-92). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.n Hyman, I. A., & Perone, D.C. (1998). The other side of school violence: Educator policies and practices that may contribute to student misbehavior. Journal of School Psychology, 30, 7-27.n Intercultural Development Research Association [IDRA]. (1994). Parent, family, and community involvement. IDRA Focus Newsletter, 28, 8.n Intercultural Development Research Association [IDRA]. (1997). Creating safe & drug free schools. IDRA Focus Newsletter, 24, 10. n Johns, B., Carr, V., & Hoots, C. (1995). Reduction of school violence: Alternatives to suspension. Horsham, PA: LRP Publications.n Johns, B. H., & Keenan, J. P. (1997). Techniques for managing a safe school. Denver, CO: Love.n Kauffman, J. (1997). Characteristics of emotional and behavioral disorders of children and youth (5th ed.). Columbus, OH: Merrill/Macmillan.n Kazdin, A. E. (1991). Prevention of conduct disorder. The prevention of mental disorders: Progress, problems, & prospects. Washington, DC: Institute of Mental Health.n Kazdin, A. E. (1993). Treatment of conduct disorder: Progress and directions in psychotherapy research. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 277-310. n Keenan, S. M. (1997). Program elements that support teachers and students with learning behavior problems. In P. Zionts (Ed.), Inclusion strategies for students with learning and behavior problems: Perspectives, experiences, and best practices. Austin, TX: ProEd.n Keller, H. R., & Tapasak, R. C. (1997). Classroom management. In A. Goldstein, & J.C. Conoley (Eds.), School violence intervention: A practical handbook. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.n Keltikangas-Jaervinen, L. (1978). Personality of violent offenders and suicidal individuals. Psychiatria Fennica, 197857-63.n Kingery, P. M. (1993). Violence, drugs and victimization among young African American males. (Race and Ethnic Studies, Research and Policy Report No. 3 & 4). Texas: A&M University.n Kingery, P. M., Biafora, F. A. & Zimmerman, R. S. (1996). Risk factors for violent behaviors among ethnically diverse urban adolescents. School Psychology International, 17, 171-188.n Kingery, P. M., Coggeshall, M. B. & Alford, A. A. (1998). Violence at school: Recent evidence from four national surveys. Psychology in the Schools, 35, 247-258.n Kingery, P. M., McCoy-Simandle, L., & Clayton, R. (1997). Risk factors for adolescent violence: The importance of vulnerability. School Psychology International, 18, 49-60.n Kingery, P. M., Mirzaee, E., Pruitt, B. E., Hurley, R. S. & Heuberger, G. (1991). Rural communities near large metropolitan areas: Safe havens from adolescent violence and drug use? Health Values, 15, 39-48.n Kingery, P. M., Pruitt, B. E., Brizzolara, J. A., Heuberger, G. (1996). Violence prevention in rural areas: Evidence of the need for educational reform and community action. International Journal of Educational Reform, 5, 26-34.n Kingery, P. M., Pruitt, B.E., Heuberger, G. & Brizzolara, J. A. (1995). Violence in rural schools: An emerging problem near the United States-Mexico border. School Psychology International, 6, 335-344.n Kingery, P. M., Pruitt, B. E., & Hurley, R. S. (1992). Violence and illegal drug use among adolescents: Evidence from the U.S. National Adolescent Student Health Survey. The International Journal of the Addictions, 27, 1445-1464.n Kingery, P. M., Pruitt, B. E., Hurley, R. S. (1993). Adolescent exposure to school health education: Factors and consequences. Journal of Health Education,(Supplement), S42-S46.n Knapp, M. J. (1996). Violence prevention strategy use & perceived effectiveness in Kansas schools. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Kansas State University, College of Education.n Knoff, H. M., & Batsche, G. M. (1995). Project ACHIEVE: Analyzing a school reform process for at-risk and underachieving students. School Psychology Review, 24, 579-603.n Lamb, F., & Dunne-Maxim, K. (1987). Postvention in the schools: Policy & process. In E. Dunne, J. McIntosh, & K. Dunne-Maxim (Eds.), Suicide & its aftermath, (pp. 245-263). New York, NY: Norton.n Larson, J. (1994). Violence prevention in the schools: A review of selected programs and procedures. School Psychology Review, 23, 151-164.n Larson, K. (with R. Rumberger). (in press). Dropout prevention for comprehensively at-risk Latino adolescents. Journal of Education for Students Placed At-Risk.n Lattimore, P. K., Visher, C. A., & Linster, R. L. (1995). Predicting rearrest for violence among serious youthful offenders. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 32, 54-83. n Lemerise, E. A., & Dodge, K. A. (1993). The development of anger and hostile interactions. In M. Lewis, & J. M. Haviland (Eds.) Handbook of emotions, (pp.537-546). New York, NY: Guilford.n Levine, D. U. & Lezotte, L. W., (1990). Unusually effective schools: A review and analysis of research and practice. The National Center for Effective Schools Research and Development, University of Wisconsin. Madison, WI: Board of Regents of University of Wisconsin System.n Lochman, J. E., Dunn, S. E., & Klimes-Dougan, B. (1993). An intervention and consultation model from a social cognitive perspective: A description of the Anger Coping Program. School Psychology Review, 22, 458-471.n Lochman, J.E., Dunn, S.E., & Wagner, E.E. (1997). Anger. In G. G. Bear, K. M. Minke, & A. Thomas (Eds.) Children’s needs: Development, problems and alternatives, (pp. 149-160). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.n Loeber, R. (1983). The stability of antisocial and delinquent child behavior: A review. Child Development, 53, 1431-1446.n Loeber, R. (1990). Development and risk factors of juvenile antisocial behavior and delinquency. Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 1-42.n Loeber, R., & Dishion, T.J. (1983). Early predictors of male delinquency: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 94, 68-99.n Loeber, R. & Farrington, D. (1998). Serious and violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions. Beverly Hills: Sage. n Loeber, R., Wung, P., Keenan, K., Giroux, B., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Van Kammen, W., & Maughan, B. (1993). Developmental pathways in disruptive child behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 103-133.n Maag, J. W., & Forness, S. R. (1991). Depression in Children & Adolescents: Identification, Assessment, & Treatment. Focus on Exceptional Children, 24, 1-19.n MacNaughton, R. H., & Johns, F. A. (1991). Developing a successful schoolwide discipline program. NASSP Bulletin, 75, 47-57.n Martin, M., & Waltman Greenwood, C. (1995). Solve your child’s school related problems. New York, NY: Harper Perennial.n Mash, E. J., & Dozois, D. J. A. (1996). Child psychopathology: A developmental-systems perspective. In E. J. Mash, & R. A. Barkley (Eds.), Child Psychopathology, (pp. 3-62). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.n Mathur, S. R., Quinn, M. M., & Rutherford, R. B. (1996). Teacher-mediated behavior management strategies for children with emotional/behavioral disorders. Reston, VA: Council For Children with Behavioral Disorders.n Mayer, G. R. (1995). Preventing antisocial behavior in the schools. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28, 467-478.n McConaughy, S. H., & Skiba, R. J. (1993). Comorbidity of externalizing and internalizing problems. School Psychology Review, 22, 421-436.n McFadden, A. C., Marsh, G. E., Price, B. J., & Hwang, Y. (1992). A study of race and gender bias in the punishment of school children. Education and Treatment of Children, 15, 140-146.n Mehas, K., Boling, K., Sobieniak, S., Sprague, J., Burke, M. D., & Hagan, S. (1998). Finding a safe haven in middle school. Teaching Exceptional Children, 30, 20-23.n Menzies, R. & Webster, C. D. (1995). Construction and validation of risk assessments in a six year follow-up of forensic patients: A tridimensional analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 766-778.n Miller, A. B., Cohen, M, Galvin, D. M., (Eds.). (1996). C.S.A.P. Substance Abuse Resource Guide: Violence. National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information, Development: Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.n Modzeleski, B. (1997). How are schools addressing their problems with drugs and violence?: Part two of creating safe, disciplined, and drug-free schools. The Challenge, 7, 3-7.n Morley, R. (1991). Alternative education. Clemson, S.C.: National Dropout Prevention Center, Clemson University.n Murray, R. (1997). The impact of school uniforms on school climate. NASSP Bulletin, 81, 106-112.n Nastasi, B.K., Varjas, K., Bernstein, R. (1998). Exemplary Mental Health Programs: School Psychologists as Mental Health Service Providers. Washington, DC: National Association of School Psychologists.n National Association of School Psychologists (1998). Behavioral interventions: Creating a safe environment in our schools. Washington, D.C: National Association of School Psychologists.n National Association of School Psychologists. (1991). Interventions for achievement & behavior problems. Washington, DC: Author.n National Association of State Boards of Education. (1994). Schools without fear. The report of the NASBE study group on violence and its impact on schools and learning. Alexandria, VA: Author.n National School Safety Center. (1990). Gangs in schools: Breaking up is hard to do. Pepperdine, CA: Author.n Nelson, J. R. (1996). Designing schools to meet the needs of students who exhibit disruptive behavior. Journal of Emotional & Behavioral Disorders, 4, 147-161.n Nelson, J. R., Crabtree, M., Marchand-Martella, N., & Martella, R. (1998). Teaching good behavior in the whole school. Teaching Exceptional Children, 30, 4-9.n Noguera, P. A. (1995) Preventing and producing violence: A critical analysis of responses to school violence. Harvard Educational Review, 65, 189-212.n Oklahoma Technical Assistance Center (n.d.). 1994-1995 Analysis: Alternative education vs. alternative discipline. Cushing, OK: Author.n Olweus, D. (1980). Familial and temperamental determinants of aggressive behavior in adolescent boys: A causal analysis. Developmental Psychology, 16, 644-660.n Osher, D. (1996). Working with students who are behaviorally challenging. Washington, DC: Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice, American Institutes for Research.n Osher, D. & Hanley, T. V.(forthcoming). Implementing the SED national agenda: Promising programs and policies for children and youth with emotional and behavioral problems. Washington, DC: Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice, American Institutes for Research.n Osher, D. & Hanley, T. V.(1996). Implications of the National Agenda to Improve Results for Children and Youth with or at Risk of Serious Emotional Disturbance. Special services in the schools, 10, 7-36.n Osher, D. and Osher, T. (1996). The National Agenda for Children and Youth with SED. In M. Nelson, R. Rutherford, and B. Wolford, Comprehensive Collaborative Systems that Work for Troubled Youth: A National Agenda (pp. 149-164). Richmond, KY: National Coalition for Juvenile Justice Services.n Paschall, M. J., Flewelling, R. L., & Ennett, S. T. (1998). Racial differences in violent behavior among young adults: Moderating and confounding effects. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 35, 148-165.n Parese, S. (1998). The development & influence of mentor relationships on urban black youth with educational disabilities. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Washington, DC: The George Washington University.n Patterson, G. R. (1992). Developmental changes in antisocial behavior. In R. D. Peters, R. J. McMahon, & V. L. Quinsey (Eds.), Aggression and violence throughout the life span, (pp.52-82). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.n Payne, C. (1991). The Comer intervention model & school reform in Chicago. Urban Education, 26, 8-24.n Peled, E. (1998). The experience of living with violence for preadolescent children of battered women. Youth and Society, 29, 395-430.n Pitcher, G. D., & Poland, S. (1992). Crisis intervention in the schools. New York: Guilford Press.n Poland, S. (1993). Crisis manual for the Alaska schools. Juneau, AK: State Department of Education.n Poland, S. (1994). The role of school crisis intervention teams to prevent & reduce school violence & trauma. School Psychology Review, 23, 175-189.n Poland, S. (1995). Suicide intervention. In A. Thomas, & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in School Psychology III. Washington, DC: National Association of School Psychologists.n Poland, S., & Pitcher, G. (1990). Best practices in crisis intervention. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.) Best Practices in School Psychology II, (pp. 259-274). Washington, DC: NASP.n Prothrew-Stith, D. (1987). Violence prevention curriculum for adolescents. Newton, MA: Education Development Center.n Pynoos, R. S., Frederick, C., & Nader, K. (1987). Life threat & post-traumatic stress in school age children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 1057-1063.n Quinn, M. M., Gable, R. A., Rutherford, R. B., Nelson, C. M., & Howell, K. W. (1998). Addressing student problem behavior: An IEP team’s introduction to functional behavioral assessment and behavior intervention plans. Washington, DC: Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice, American Institutes for Research.n Quinn, M. M., Osher, D., Hoffman, C. C., & Hanley, T. V. (1998). Safe, drug-free, & effective schools for all students: What works. Washington, DC: Center for Effective Collaboration & Practice. American Institutes for Research.n Quinn, M. M., & Rutherford, R. B. (1997). Alternative programs for students with social, emotional or behavioral problems. Reston, VA: Council for Children with Behavioral Problems. n Raywid, M. (1994). Synthesis of research: Alternative schools: The state of the art. Educational Leadership, 52, 26-31.n Reichle, J. (1990). National working conference on positive approaches to the management of excess behavior: Final report and recommendations. Minneapolis, MN: Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota.n Reid, J. B. (1993). Prevention of conduct disorder before and after school entry: Relating interventions to developmental findings. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 243-262.n Reynolds, W. M. (1990). Depression in Children & Adolescents: Nature, Diagnosis, Assessment, & Treatment. School Year Review, 19, 158-173.n Riley, R. W. (1996). Improving America’s schools. School Psychology Review, 25, 477-484.n Rosenberg, M. L., Powell, K. E., & Hammond, R. (1997). Applying science to violence prevention. Journal of American Medical Association, 277, 1641-1642.n Rothbart, M. K., Posner, M. I., & Hershey, K. L. (1995). Temperament, attention, and developmental psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & D. Cohen (Eds.), Manual of developmental psychopathology (pp. 315-340). New York: Wiley. n Rubin, K. H., Chen, X., & Hymel, S. (1993). Socio-emotional characteristics of withdrawn and aggressive children. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 39, 518-534.n Rubin, K. H., Hymel, S., Lemare, L., Rowden, L. (1989). Children experiencing social difficulties: Sociometric neglect reconsidered. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 21, 94-111.n Rutherford, R. B. & Nelson, C. M. (1995). Management of aggressive and violent behavior in the schools. Focus on Exceptional Children, 27, 1-15.n Saarni, C. (1990). Emotional competence: How emotions and relationships become integrated. In R.A. Thompson (Ed.), Socio-emotional development (pp 115-182). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.n Sabo, D. J. (1995). Organizational climate of middle schools and the quality of student life. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 28, 150-160. n Scattergood, P., Dash, K., Epstein, J., & Adler, M. (1998). Applying effective strategies to prevent or reduce substance abuse, violence & disruptive behavior among youth. Boston, MA: Education Development Center, Inc.n Schinke, S. P., Orlandi, M. A., & Cole, K. C. (1992). Boys and girls clubs in public housing developments: Prevention services for youth at risk. Journal of Community Psychology: OSAP Special Issue, 20, 118-128.n Schwartz, D., McFadyen-Ketchum, S. A., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (1998). Peer group victimization as a predictor of children’s behavior problems at home and in school. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 87-99.n Serin, R. C. & Amos, N. L. (in press). The role of psychopathy in the assessment of dangerousness. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. n Shapiro, J. P., Dorman, R. L., William, B. M., Welker, C. J., & Clough, J. B. (1997). Development and factor analysis of a measure of youth attitudes toward guns and violence. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 26, 311-320.n Sheley, J., McGee, Z. T., & Wright, J. (1995). Weapon related victimization in selected inner-city high school samples. Rockville, MD: National Criminal Justice Reference Service.n Sheras, P. L., Cornell, D. G., & Bostain, D. S. (1996). The Virginia youth violence project: Transmitting psychological knowledge on youth violence to schools and communities. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 27, 401-406.n Shields, A. M., Cicchetti, D., & Ryan, R. M. (1994). The development of emotional and behavioral self-regulation and social competence among maltreated school-age children. Development and Psychopathology, 6, 57-75.n Shores, R. E., Gunter, P. L., & Jack, S. L. (1993). Classroom management strategies: Are they setting events for coercion? Behavioral Disorders, 18, 92-102.n Short, R. J., & Shapiro, S. K. (1993). Conduct disorders: A framework for understanding & intervention in schools & communities. School Psychology Review, 22, 362-375.n Short, P. M., Short, R. J., & Blanton, C. (1994I). Rethinking student discipline: Alternatives that work. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.n Skiba, R. (1997). Conduct disorders. In G. G. Bear, K. Minke, & A. Thomas, (Eds.). Children’s needs II: Development, problems, & alternatives. Washington, DC: National Association of School Psychologists.n Skiba, R. J., Peterson, R. L., Williams, T. (1997). Office referrals and suspension: Disciplinary intervention in middle schools. Education and Treatment of Children, 20, 1-21.n Skiba, R., Polsgrove, L., & Nasstom, K. (1996). Developing a system of care: Interagency collaboration for students with emotional/behavioral disorders. Reston, VA: The Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders.n Skiba, R. J., Waldron, N., Bahamonde, C., & Michalek, D. (1998, May). A four-step model for functional behavior assessment. NASP Communique, 26, 24-25.n Slaby, R.G., & Guerra, N.G. (1988). Cognitive mediations of aggression in adolescent offenders: I. Assessment. Developmental Psychology, 24, 580-588.n Slaby, R. G., Wilson-Brewer, R., & Dash, K. (1994). Aggressors, victims, & bystanders: Thinking & acting to prevent violence. Newton, MA: Education Development Center.n Smedley, J. W. & Bayton, J. A. (1978). Evaluative race-class stereotypes by race and perceived class of subjects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 530-535.n Snyder, H. N., Sickmund, M., & Poe-Yamogata, E. (1996). Juvenile offenders and victims: 1996 update on violence. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.n Soriano, M., Soriano, F. I., & Jimenez, E. (1994). School violence among culturally diverse populations: Social, cultural, and institutional consideration. School Psychology Review, 23, 216-235. n Stanley, M. S. (1996). School uniforms and safety. Education and Urban Society, 28, 424-435.n Stephens, R. D. (1997). National trends in school violence: Statistics and prevention strategies. In A. Goldstein, & J. C. Conoley (Eds.), School violence intervention: A practical handbook. New York, NY: Guilford Press.n Stephens, R. D. (1994). Planning for safer and better schools: School violence prevention and intervention strategies. School Psychology Review, 23, 204-215.n Steward, G. K., & Knapp, M. J. (1997). How to modify your facilities to minimize violence & vandalism. School Business Affairs, 63, 43-46.n Strain, P., Guralnick, M., & Walker, H. M. (Eds.) Children’s social behavior: Development, assessment, & modification. New York, NY: Academic Press.n Stroul, B. A. and Friedman, R. M. (1996). System of care concept and philosophy. In B. A. Stroul (Ed.), Children’s Mental Health: Creating Systems of Care in a Changing Society, (pp. 3-21). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.n Sugai, G. M. (1996). Providing effective behavior support to all students: Procedures and processes. SAIL, 11, 1-4.n Sugai, G. M. (1992). The design of instruction and the proactive management of social behaviors. Learning Disabilities Forum, 17, 20-23.n Sugai, G., & Horner, R. (in press). Antisocial behavior, discipline, and behavioral support: A look from the schoolhouse door. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine.n Sugai, G. M., & Horner, R. (1994). Including students with severe behavior problems in general education settings: Assumptions, challenges, and solutions. In J. Marr, G. Sugai, & G. Tindal (Eds.) The Oregon Conference Monograph, Vol 7, (p. 102-120). Eugene, OR: University of Oregon.n Takanishi, R. (1993). The Opportunities of Adolescence – Research Intervention and Policy: Introduction for the special issue. American Psychologist, 48, 85-87.n Taylor-Greene, S., Brown, D., Nelson, L., Longton, J., Gassman, T., Cohen, J., & Swartz, J. (1997). School-wide behavioral support: Starting the year off right. Journal of Behavioral Education, 7, 99-112.n Terr, L. C. (1985). Children traumatized in small groups. In S. Eth & R. S. Pynoos (Eds.), Post-traumatic stress disorder in children, (pp. 47-70). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.n Thernstrom, F. & Thernstrom, A. (1997). America in black and white: One nation indivisible. New York: Simon & Schuster.n Thomas, A. & Grimes, J. (Eds.). (1995). Best practices in school psychology (3rd ed.). Washington, D.C: National Association of School Psychologists.n Tobias, R. (1989). Educating black urban adolescents: Issues and programs. In R. L. Jones (Ed.), Black adolescents, (pp. 207-227). Berkeley, CA: Cobb & Henry.n Tobin, T., Sugai, G., & Colvin, G. (1996). Patterns in middle school discipline records. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, 82-94.n Todd, A. W., Horner, R. H., Sugai, G. & Sprague, J. R. (in press). Effective behavior support: Strengthening school-wide systems through a team-based approach. Effective School Practices, Association of Direct Instruction.n Tolan, P., & Guerra, N. (1994). What works in reducing adolescent violence: An empirical review of the field. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Boulder, Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence.n Tolan, P., Guerra, N., & Kendall, P.C. (1995). Introduction to special section: Prediction and prevention of antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 515-517. n Trump, K. S. (1998). Practical school security: basic guidelines for safe and secure schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.n U.S. Department of Education. (1993). Reaching the goals: Goal 6. Safe, disciplined, and drug-free schools. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Goal 6 Work Group.n U.S. Department of Education. (1994). National agenda for achieving better results for children and youth with serious emotional disturbance. Washington, DC: Office of Special Education, U.S. Department of Education.n U.S. Department of Education, Office of Research. (1994). Educational reforms and students at risk: A review of the current state of the art. Washington, DC: Author.n U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs. (1997). School-wide behavioral management systems. Research Connections in Special Education, 1(1). n Vallance, D. D., Cummings, R. L., & Humphries, T. (1998). Mediators of the risk for problem behavior in children with language learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 31, 160-171.n Vickers, H. S., & Minke, K. M. (1997). Family systems and family-school connection. In G. G. Bear, K. M. Minke, & A. Thomas (Eds.) Children’s needs II: Development, problems and alternatives, (pp. 547-558). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.n Wager, B. R. (1992-1993). No more suspensions: Creating a shared ethical culture. Educational Leadership, 50, 34-37.n Wagner, M. (1991). Dropouts with disabilities: What do we know? What can we do? Report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International.n Walker, D. (1994/1995). Preventing violence in schools. Research Round Up, 11. Alexandria, VA: National Association of Elementary School Principals.n Walker, H. M. (1995). The acting out child. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.n Walker, H. M. (1998). First step to prevent antisocial behavior. Teaching Exceptional Children, 30, 16-19.n Walker, H. M., Colvin, G., & Ramsey, E. (1995). Antisocial behavior in school: Strategies and best practices. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.n Walker, H. M., Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Bullis, M., Sprague, J. R., Bricker, D., & Kaufman, J. J. (1996). Integrated approaches to preventing antisocial behavior patterns among school-age children and youth. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, 194-209.n Walker, H. M., Kavanaugh, K., Stiller, B., Golly, A., Severson, H. H., & Feil, E. G. (in press). First steps: An early intervention approach for preventing school antisocial behavior. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.n Walker, H. M., & Severson, H. H. (1992). Systematic screening for behavior disorders (SSBD): User’s guide and administration manual (2nd Ed.). Longmont, CO: Sopris West.n Walker, H. M., Stieber, S., & O’Neill, R. E. (1990). Middle school behavioral profiles of antisocial and at-risk control boys: Descriptive and predictive outcomes. Exceptionality, 1, 61-77.n Walker, H. M., Stieber, S., Ramsey, E., & O’Neill, R. E. (1990). School behavioral profiles of arrested versus nonarrested adolescents. Exceptionality, 1, 249-265.n Walker, H.M., & Sylwester, R. (1991). Where is school along the path to prison? Educational Leadership, 49, 14-16n Webber, J., & Sheuermann, B. (1991). Accentuate the positive: Eliminate the negative! Teaching Exceptional Children, Fall, 13-19.n Webster-Stratton, C. (1993). Strategies for helping early school-aged children with oppositional defiant and conduct disorders: The importance of home-school partnerships. School Psychology Review, 22, 437-457.n Webster-Stratton, C. (1996). How to support your child’s education. The parents & children videotape series. Seattle, WA.n Werner, E. E. (1989). High-risk children in young adulthood: A longitudinal study from birth to 32 years. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 59, 72-81. n Werner, E. E. (1993). Risk, resilience, and recovery: Perspectives from the Kauai longitudinal study. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 503-515.n Werner, P. D., Rose, T. L, and Yesavage, J. A. (1983). Reliability, accuracy, and decision-making strategy in clinical predictions of imminent dangerousness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 815-825.n Westerly Integrated Social Services Program. (1997). Westerly Integrated Social Services Program. [Brochure]. Westerly, RI: Author.n White, J. L., Moffitt, T. E., Earls, F., Robins, L., & Silva, P. (1990). How early can we tell? Predictors of childhood conduct disorder and adolescent delinquency. Criminology, 28, 507-533. n Williams, J. (1989). Reducing the disproportionately high frequency of disciplinary actions against minority students: An assessment-based policy approach. Equity and Excellence, 24, 31-37.n Woodruff, D. W., Osher, D., Hoffman, C.C., Gruner, A., King, M. A., Snow, S. T., & McIntire, J. C. (in press). The role of education in a system of care: Effectively serving children with emotional or behavioral disorders. Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research. n Zangoza, N., Vaughn, S., & McIntosh, R. (1991). Social skills interventions & children with behavior problems: A review. Behavioral Disorders, 16, 260-275.n Zuravin, S. J. (1989). Severity of maternal depression and three types of mother-to-child aggression. American Journal of Orthopsychiatric Association, 377-389.